Varasema töö autor
Varasema töö järeldus Kuidas käsitletud käesolevas bakalaureusetöös
maailmavaade, seda rohkem elektriautosid pooldatakse.
Inimesed, kes on täiesti nõus, et maailm on kriisis ja vajab viivitamatult tegutsemist ja inimesed, kes valisid kolme omaduse seast loodusäästlikkuse pooldasid elektriautosid enam.
Krupa et al. (2014)
Vasakpoolsema poliitilise vaatega inimesed hindavad enda tõenäosust elektriauto osta suuremaks.
Inimeste vasak- ja parempoolsust otsustati mitte uurida, kuna hinnatakse enda tõenäosust elektriauto osta.
Käesolevas bakalaureusetöös ei leitud erineva auto liigi omanikel ja hoiakute küsimustel, sealhulgas auto ostmise tõenäosuse hindamisel, seost.
elektriautode vastu rohkem huvi kui naised.
Huvi elektriautode vastu ei käsitletud käesolevas uurimuses.
Mehed usuvad suurema
elektriautod on turvalised kui naised.
Käesolevas uuringus hindavad mehed elektriautosid statistiliselt oluliselt enam turvalisemateks kui naised. juhtinud inimesed hindavad elektriautosid statistiliselt oluliselt enam turvaliseks.
Mehed usuvad väiksema tõenäosusega elektriautode elujõulisusesse kui naised.
Elujõulisust käsitleti käesolevas bakalaureusetöös elektriautode 10% piiri ületamise küsimusega.
Mehed usuvad statistiliselt oluliselt suurema tõenäosusega elektriautode 10% varajasemasse
Elektriauto omanikud või ostusooviga indiviidid soovivad sõita vähe keskkonda kahjustava autoga, nõus andma innovatsioonile võimaluse ning suurema tõenäosusega andma järgi auto mugavuses.
Käesolevas uuringus otsustati neid väiteid küsimustikus mitte kasutada, kuna autor usub, et need järeldused on üsna suure tõenäosusega tõesed ning samastuvad elektriautode kasutuselevõtuga.
Mida pikem igapäevane sõit, seda odavamaks
Hinnangut elektriautode ülalpidamiskuludesse otsustati mitte uurida.
hinnatakse elektriauto ülalpidamiskulusid.
Mehed peavad elektriautot ebamugavamaks kui naised
Meeste ja naiste mugavuse hindamise keskväärtused ei ole statistiliselt oluliselt erinevad.
elektriautosid rohkem CO2
heitgaase väljastavamaks kui naised.
CO2 heitgaaside väljastamise hindamist ei uuritud, kuid elektriautode loodussäästlikkuse hindamisel võrreldes sisepõlemismootoriga autodega hindavad mehed elektriautosid statistiliselt oluliselt vähem loodussäästlikuks kui naised.
Thiel et al. (2012)
Mida teadlikumad ollakse elektriautodest, seda suurema tõenäosusega elektriauto ostetakse.
Vastajad, kes on täiesti nõus või pigem nõus, et nad on elektriautode osas keskmisest eestlasest teadlikumad on suurema tõenäosusega valmis elektriauto ostma.
Allikas: autori koostatud tabelis toodud autorite ja SPSS andmete põhjal
PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARDS ELECTRIC VEHICLES Mihkel Vaher
Countries and car manufacturers are actively trying to reduce emissions from the cars and reduce the use of natural resources used by the cars. Billions of euros have been invested to develop diesel and petrol motors and they have been developed almost to their fullest potential. At the same time alternative motor types have huge development potential and when using alternative motors, there are better chances to reduce emissions from the cars and the use of natural resources used by the cars.
From alternative motor types, electric vehicles have become strong alternative to cars that use diesel and petrol. Electric vehicle batteries and infrastructure are not perfect, but their potential is not fully developed and even now they have many advantages over cars with internal combustion engines. The amount of electric vehicles is growing rapidly and more and more people find enough positive qualities in electric vehicles to buy one.
Electric vehicles have many supporters and at least the same amount of skeptics who does not think that electric vehicles are better than vehicles with internal combustion engines and will never be. The more there are supporters, the more they will influence people with a neutral view to look electric vehicles positively and the more electric vehicles are bought. The more electric vehicles are bought, the more the electric vehicles are being developed and the use of natural resources and amount of emissions is being reduced.
Could be said, that everything starts with the attitudes.
Public attitudes to electric vehicles might be absolutely different and the aim of current thesis is to find out what kind of attitudes Estonian people have towards electric vehicles, what do people think about electric vehicles. Subject could be interesting for electric vehicle enthusiasts, for ministries who are trying to popularize electric vehicles and for
electric vehicle resellers. The amount of electric vehicles is going to be definitely bigger in the future and the subject is definitely actual in the society.
The aim of current thesis is to find out the attitudes of Estonian people towards electric vehicles and which factors are influencing it. The author has taken following tasks in order to reach the aim of the current thesis:
1) explain implementing electric vehicles, 2) explain attitudes and their functions,
3) examine previous researches on attitudes towards electric vehicles, 4) examine use of electric vehicles,
5) analyze Estonian people attitudes towards electric vehicles, 6) analyze factors influencing attitudes.
For adopting innovation there are usually three factors to evaluate: instrumental, symbolic and environmental. The instrumental factors of electric vehicles might not be as good as internal combustion engine vehicle instrumental qualities – electric vehicles are more expensive, it is not possible to save that much from maintenance costs, battery needs to be replaces when it has dropped under 80% of power, it has a low range and it needs a long time to recharge. On the other hand, the price of electric vehicle batteries is dropping every year and the range is every year getting bigger, making instrumental factors stronger in each year.
Symbolic factors of electric vehicles depend on how people look at electric vehicles.
Giving them advantages over electric vehicles, a possibility to ride on bus lanes or to park free in the centre of the town, it is possible to increase prestige of electric vehicles once they get incentives that are incapable for others.
The strongest factor of adopting innovation for electric vehicles are probably environmental factors. Electric vehicles are producing close to zero emissions and if they are recharged from alternative energy sources there are no emissions produced indirectly – by producing electric energy for electric vehicles.
Countries have a possibility to strengthen all three innovation adoption factors – they can offer better incentives for electric vehicles to strengthen instrumental and symbolic
factors, they could aim to produce more energy from alternative energy sources to strengthen environmental factors.
Attitudes towards electric vehicles have been researched in biggest European countries and in USA. Different researches have shown that more positive attitudes are shown by people who feel the importance of the running costs of cars, who feel the danger of climate change, people who prefer left-sided political parties, users of smaller cars and people who have more knowledge about electric vehicles.
In Estonia the use of electric vehicles is quite wide – more electric vehicles are registered by percentage of all cars only in Norway, in year 2016 Denmark surpassed Estonia. The support of electric vehicles has ended in Estonia, unlike another countries who are still supporting electric vehicles.
To find out the attitudes towards electric vehicles among Estonians, online survey was conducted. There was 765 responses and from these answers present thesis analyzed the attitudes towards electric vehicles and factors influencing it.
Most of the respondents agreed that directing resources towards electric vehicles is reasonable, but small amount of people agreed that we should all drive electric vehicles mandatorily by the law. Respondents saw electric vehicles as a little more prestigious and a lot more nature-saving, but a bit more unsafe and a lot more uncomfortable as internal combustion engines.
Attitude towards electric vehicles is positively influenced by non-owning a car and not driving a lot of kilometres. According to adjustment function of the attitude people have more positive attitudes towards what is beneficial for them – people who have a personal car and who drive a lot of kilometres might have a problem with low range of electric vehicle.
The ownership of electric vehicle is positively influencing the attitude towards electric vehicles. According to ego-defensive function of the attitude people have more positive attitudes towards what they own and they defend it from criticism – owners of electric vehicles tend to value the attributes of electric vehicles more higher, they agree more with the reasonability to direct resources to electric vehicles and they value their probability to
buy electric vehicle in the future more higher than the people who do not own an electric vehicle.
More positive attitude towards electric vehicles have respondents who chose nature-saving attribute from the three attributes (nature-nature-saving, comfortableness and prestigious) when they are considering to buy a car and respondents who agree that environment of the world is in crisis and we should act immediately. According to value expression function of the attitude people have more positive attitudes towards what is suitable for their values – as electric vehicles are considered as nature-saving, respondents have a more positive attitude towards them.
Respondents who totally agreed that they know more about the electric vehicles than average Estonian had more positive attitudes toward electric vehicles. According to the knowledge function of the attitude attitudes help us to understand the outside world – the more people know about the electric vehicles the more they understand about the electric vehicles and who claimed to know more about electric vehicles had better attitudes towards electric vehicles.
The use of electric vehicles is positive for the countries and to support it, countries should try to change people attitudes more positive towards electric vehicles. Current thesis found out that it is possible to make attitudes towards electric vehicles more positive by changing their values to more nature-saving and making them more knowledgeable about electric vehicles.
Lihtlitsents lõputöö reprodutseerimiseks ja lõputöö üldsusele kättesaadavaks tegemiseks
Mina, Mihkel Vaher (39103315212):
1. annan Tartu Ülikoolile tasuta loa (lihtlitsentsi) enda loodud teose „Inimeste hoiakud elektriautode suhtes”, mille juhendaja on Helen Poltimäe,
1.1. reprodutseerimiseks säilitamise ja üldsusele kättesaadavaks tegemise eesmärgil, sealhulgas digitaalarhiivi DSpace-is lisamise eesmärgil kuni autoriõiguse kehtivuse tähtaja lõppemiseni;
1.2. üldsusele kättesaadavaks tegemiseks ülikooli veebikeskkonna kaudu, sealhulgas digitaalarhiivi DSpace´i kaudu kuni autoriõiguse kehtivuse tähtaja lõppemiseni.
2. olen teadlik, et punktis 1 nimetatud õigused jäävad alles ka autorile.
3. kinnitan, et lihtlitsentsi andmisega ei rikuta teiste isikute intellektuaalomandi ega isikuandmete kaitse seadusest tulenevaid õigusi.
Tartus, ______________ (kuupäev)