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5 Impacts of Bottom-Up Development on the Community-Level

5.2. Major Employment Sources

5.2.1. Public Sector

As the administrative centre of Nunavik, Kuujjuaq is the seat of various federal, provincial and regional organizations and institutions that offer a variety of jobs in the community. All the regional administrative institutions that were created through the James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement in 1978 have their head office here: Kativik Regional Government, Kativik School Board, Nunavik Regional Board for Health and Social Services. In addition, several provincial and federal departments have offices in the village.

Makivik Corporation also has its head office in Kuujjuaq.

Fig. 32: Occupation of those 15 years and older employed in the workforce in Kuujjuaq in 2006

5. Impacts of Bottom-Up Development on the Community-Level

In 2006, the public administration provided for 23.5 percent of jobs in the community, translating into 240 jobs. Other major employment sources were with 28.9 percent health care and social assistance as well as educational services with 14.8 percent of the job, held by residents 15 years and older employed in the labour force (Statistics Canada 2008j). Just the Kativik Regional Government had employed 156 employees in Kuujjuaq in 2005 (Kativik Regional Government 2005: 9). Combines, public administration, health care and social assistance as well as education services provide for 67.2 percent of jobs held by the employed residents 15 years and older (Statistics Canada 2008j) (Fig. 32).

Municipal Administration - Northern Village of Kuujjuaq

Before the James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement was signed, Kuujjuaq, similar to the other newly created communities in Nunavik were incorporated under federal charters, creating Inuit communities with Inuit community councils (DUPUIS 2003: 234). Today, the community is organized as a municipality administered by the Northern Village of Kuujjuaq. In 2008, the municipal administration employed 145 employees, of which 85 percent were Inuit (INTERVIEW 32). In addition, especially during the summer months, it provides training opportunities for high school students. In 2008, just the municipality alone hired 23 summer students (INTERVIEW 32). Although the municipality preferably hires Inuit, not all positions can be filled with residents, as sometimes not enough qualified and dependable applicants are available, especially for short term, labour intensive positions that have to be completed by a certain deadline (INTERVIEW 32). After 2005, the municipal administration was reorganized including the hiring of a municipal manager.

The community feels the increased presence of mining companies in the region. Although the residents do not benefit job-wise from these activities yet as most of them are still in the exploration stages, the Northern Village and the Landholding Corporation are both involved in a committee to plan the introduction of mining activities near Kuujjuaq (INTERVIEW 32).

b) Nain

In Nain, public administration, health care and social assistance jobs as well as educational services only made up 55 percent of the jobs in the community in 2005 (Statistics Canada 2008r) (Fig. 33). This percentage is lower than in Kuujjuaq, but can be explained with the fact that in 2005, the new regional (self-) government institutions (e.g. Nunatsiavut Government) were not established yet. Several departments of the Government of Canada

5. Impacts of Bottom-Up Development on the Community-Level

as well as the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador are represented in Nain offering a few, mostly high-qualified jobs in the community. This includes the provincial Departments of Human Resources and Employment, Health and Community Services and the Department of Justice (Victims Services and Corrections Divisions), the Department of Transportation and Works as well as the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Other community services are among others a post office by Canada Post, a detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Nain Health Centre as well as a school and daycare facility (Nain Inuit Community Government 2008).

Fig. 33: Occupations of those 15 years and older employed in the workforce in Nain in 2006

Source: Statistics Canada 2008r

The Nunatsiavut Government established its administrative centre in Nain in 2006 and through that created several new jobs in the community. Not all of these jobs are at present filled with residents. Especially in the starting phase of the new government it proved difficult to find qualified applicants to fill some of the higher up positions in the administration. So hiring people from outside is a necessity at times (INTERVIEW 34).

But the Nunatsiavut Government is committed to a preferential hiring policy for residents of the community and the region and hopes that with increased experience and training all government positions can be filled from within the region (INTERVIEW 34). By improving the education system in the region and actively encouraging the younger

5. Impacts of Bottom-Up Development on the Community-Level

Fig. 34: Old administration building of the Nunatsiavut government in Nain

Source: FUGMANN 2008

Investments are also constantly made to enhance the administrative services offered by the Nunatsiavut Government as well as improve its government infrastructure in the communities.After several years of planning and construction a new Nunatsiavut Government Building was opened in August 2010. The old office building (Fig. 34), owned by the Labrador Inuit Development Corporation is being renovated and will be partly used as a research lab for the Nunatsiavut Government in the future (OKalaKatiget Society 2010a).

Community Administration - Nain Inuit Community Government

The Inuit Community Government Nain is the successor of the Town Council of Nain that existed before the signing of the Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement and was governed by the Municipalities Act. In 2008, the Community Government employed 23 full-time employees and had an additional 2 – 12 part-time or temporary positions depending on the time of the year (INTERVIEW 38; INTERVIEW 39). All positions had been filled with beneficiaries of the land claim agreement. Similar to other employers, the Nain Inuit Community Government experiences the problem that open positions are sometimes hard to fill as there are not enough applicants available that have the right qualification like

5. Impacts of Bottom-Up Development on the Community-Level

administrative, business diplomas or mechanical training (INTERVIEW 38). There are no training opportunities offered by the community government itself. Employees have to travel out of the community to receive formal training at colleges or other facilities (e.g. in Goose Bay). This is however seen as a challenge as formal training can take a long time and so potential employees are not available immediately (INTERVIEW 39).

In addition to its regular workforce, the Inuit Community Government of Nain also contributes to helping residents in the community in creating temporary employment projects that are intended to support workers who were not able to acquire enough hours in their seasonal summer jobs to qualify for Employment Insurance benefits. These projects are necessary for a remote community like Nain, where employment opportunities are limited. Especially in a time when traditional employment sources like the fishing industry struggles, they secure income for a large number of families and contribute to the well-being of the whole community. The financing of these projects is secured through funding applications at outside sources. One of the most important programs for the community is the Community Enhancement Employment Program (CEEP) offered by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. The intention of the program is that “workers in rural areas are employed by local governments or community organizations for up to 420 hours to assist them with eligibility for Employment Insurance benefits. The Department provides funding towards projects that contribute to tourism development, economic development, community/municipal infrastructure and community services....[or] projects that provide skills development opportunities for workers and ongoing benefits to the region”

(Department of Municipal Affairs 2010).

In the last few years, the Nain Inuit Community Government received funding for multiple projects through this program. For example, in 2008, the community government was approved for two projects and was able to hire 10 people (OKalaKatiget Society 2008f). In October 2010, the Nain Inuit Community Government again received $11,752 through the CEEP as well as an additional $7,000 for craft development in Nain. At that time 28 people in the community were in need for an additional 420 hours or less of work to qualify for Employment Insurance benefits for the winter. As part of the project, workers will “build more garbage boxes and construct a chained link fence on the community’s bridge” to build-up their hours. In the end 13 people were able to get a job through the funding

5. Impacts of Bottom-Up Development on the Community-Level